For deep understanding please refer to: Civil Engineer’s Reference Book

edited by L S Blake.

It’s costly but some of the part related to pile, you can find in google books.

OR

https://archive.org/details/gov.in.is.2911.1.3.2010 ]]>

thank you for your replay in advance

Maher ]]>

Thanks for commenting.

In case of pile cap( for group piles )we use grade(ground) beam for transmitting bearing wall load through pile cap to pile.

But in case of under reamed pile there is no need of pile cap hence no need of grade beam. Hence under reamed pile foundation connected with plinth beam.

For references: Mattheus F.A. Goosen – 2006:Expansive Soils: Recent Advances in Characterization and Treatment andSoil Mechanics and Foundation B.C Punmia And Ashok Kumar Jain, Amer Ali Al-Rawas, ]]>

As per fig. If with plinth then please provide reference for it ]]>

Forgetting the actuality is and forgetting {bag|biz|c

]]>I will add up that derivative portion and in second part you mentioned that it would be a pyramid shape but David it is possible only when beam given in example is loaded with distributed load combined with those point loads given in example. I will add some points while adding relation portion then it will be clear. And I think, the shape might be trapezium.

Thanks for Visit and Commenting

EngineeringSpine.com ]]>

Shear force is the derivative of bending moment. The easiest method to draw up shear and moment diagrams for a beam is to start with shear, by just following the reactions and acting forces i.e. left support 10kN -> draw a vertical line up of size 10 kN, then horizontal line till the next force. i.e. a load downwards of 20 kN in the middle -> draw a vertical line downwards, going into negative 10 kN. Then horizontal line till right end support where you get back to zero with a vertical line up. Then you can obtain bending moment diagram by drawing the integrate curve of the shear curve. In this example, it would be a pyramid shape. ]]>