If through investigation we found that the shallow soil is unstable and weak( means the bearing capacity of soil is not satisfactory) then pile foundation is considered. And also the pile foundation is cheaper than any other ground improvement cost. Piles are also give better results in jetties or bridge piers. Hence piles are specifically applicable:
- for multistory buildings, subjected to heavy loads and vibrations.
- for resisting lateral loads like in overhead tanks and transmission towers.
- for industrial building which are subjected to large moments(about the base of the crane) due to movement of cranes.
Pile foundation are generally used when poor soil conditions extend to large depth and applied load is quite heavy and also suitable when grillage( a cross framework of timber and metal beams) and raft ( a fully spread concrete slab which supports columns and walls) foundation are expensive.
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The famous question asked by teachers from Civil engineering students in the first year of engineering is that “what is foundation?” In simplest form Foundation is the lowermost part of building below ground level which directly transmit load to the sub soil.
And footing is the lowermost portion of the foundation which is in direct contact with subsoil.
Soil moisture tension(S.M.T) is the force per unit area required by plant to suck the water from the soil. It means that S.M.T is inversely proportional to water content in soil(more the water content less S.M.T required and vice versa) i.e. at field capacity it is easy for plant to extract water from soil but at wilting point maximum energy is liberate by plant to extract the water from soil which is equals to the tension with which soil holds the water.
Purpose of Site Exploration
- to check ground water level and underlying material at site
- To decide economical foundation for project
- To check safe bearing capacity of soil
- To check subsoil conditions in supporting the structures
- To decide maximum depth of foundation.