The explanation is for 1st year students, as the word shows ‘seasoning’ means removal of water in presence of proper air circulation under controlled conditions and while seasoning, water does not exceed 15% of its dry weight.
Following benefits are:-
- to make it durable against cracks, warp and sharp.
- to make it fit for receiving treatments of paints, varnishes, preservatives, etc.
- to make it workable for various operations while construction work.
- to increase strength, hardness and stiffness against rough use.
- increase electrical resistance power.
- to make it suitable for joining with other types of timber.
- to make it suitable for burning as a fuel.
If through investigation we found that the shallow soil is unstable and weak( means the bearing capacity of soil is not satisfactory) then pile foundation is considered. And also the pile foundation is cheaper than any other ground improvement cost. Piles are also give better results in jetties or bridge piers. Hence piles are specifically applicable:
- for multistory buildings, subjected to heavy loads and vibrations.
- for resisting lateral loads like in overhead tanks and transmission towers.
- for industrial building which are subjected to large moments(about the base of the crane) due to movement of cranes.
Pile foundation are generally used when poor soil conditions extend to large depth and applied load is quite heavy and also suitable when grillage( a cross framework of timber and metal beams) and raft ( a fully spread concrete slab which supports columns and walls) foundation are expensive.
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Gradient shows the meeting of elevation points at one end with respect to depression points at other end.
Sometimes 1st year or 2nd year students got confused when they hear about 1 in 100. Here 1 represents vertical distance and 100 represents horizontal distance in mm or cm or foot or inch or meter or KM as per requirement.
Types of gradients generally used in railway are:-
- Ruling gradient:- the grade at which a single locomotive can easily pass out train without any additional efforts.
- pusher gradient:- the gradient at which more than one locomotives are used to push the train.
- Momentum gradient:- the gradient at which momentum is provided to locomotive at down grade to overcome steeper gradient.
- Station yard gradient:- these gradients are provided to drain out water.
Such gradients are provided only to haul the train.
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Lintel :- It is a horizontal member which is placed just above the opening to resist loads acting over the opening and transfer loads to supporting walls. And it acts like a beam.
Types of lintels are:-
- Timber or wood lintel :- they are made up of timber pieces and generally used in olden days and are easily affected by insects.
- brick lintel
- stone lintel
- R.C.C lintel :- made up of reinforcement and concrete. Here reinforcement resist tensile stresses and concrete resist compressive stresses.They are mainly used as pre-casted or cast-in-situ.
- steel lintel :- they are made up of rolled steel joist angles for small span or longer span.