Concrete is a compact mixture of cement, sand and aggregates(fine and coarse aggregates). Concrete is always weak in tension and strong in compression, where steel is weak in compression and strong in tension. When we apply loads to a structural member i.e. beam the upper portion above neutral axis is in compression and portion below neutral axis is in tension.
Use of reinforcement in beam member is necessary to reduce crack generation due to tension in lower portion of member.
Longitudinal reinforcement is used to neutralize tension at bottom portion of member.
Stirrups serve as to neutralize crack formation due to diagonal and vertical tension.
Bent up bars serve as to neutralize crack formation due to diagonal tension and to neutralize reversal moment.
If not understood please refer any book for detail.
First of all we must know what is reinforcement: Reinforcement is the set of bars placed in longitudinal and transverse direction for providing backup strength to concrete structure under given loading. Below figure shows longitudinal beam reinforcement.
Below figure shows the R.C.C beam filled with concrete.
In beams top bars and bottom bars are placed in horizontal direction longitudinally while stirrups are place in perpendicular direction(or transversely) to the longitudinal reinforcement to hold bottom and top bars in position but technical reason is different(so we explain later). The above figures are only for study purpose.
In this plan we can see that at starting Hall then 3 bed rooms were provided and one bed room is attached with western closet.Now divide the total area according to usability. Leaving built-up area we have provided open space for gardening and storing purpose. Here we are providing 9″ outer walls which is a standard wall thickness and 4.5″ inner walls.
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It’s a simple drawing made by EngineeringSpine.com for understanding the placement of rooms according to their usability for civil engineering students of second year, at the rear view of building by removing wall you can place shutter of usable dimension.